The Product Life-Cycle Concept

Because we live and work in a dynamic market situation, managers must accept as the normal state of affairs that all products have a limited life. This fact is commonly expressed in the form of the product life-cycle curve. Products during their existence go through the phases indicated on the curve, as follows:

1. Starting before, sometimes long before, a product reaches the marketplace, there is a development phase. Market research must be undertaken, the product designed, prototypes built, plants laid down. While costs can be very high, income will initially be nil and will probably grow only slowly. Profits are a long way off yet. Many products are slow to ‘catch on’ and this part of the curve typically does not rise steeply.

2. During the growth phase the product reaches general acceptance, and sales increase steeply. Profits mount as development costs are recovered and unit costs decrease with greater volume of production.

3. As the product reaches maturity, initial demand is beginning to be satisfied, competitors may have arrived on the scene, and there will be greater reliance on replacement sales. Sales increase more slowly, and profits come under pressure and may start to decline.

4. When the market is fully saturated, sales will ‘peak off’ and profits decline still further.

5. Finally, sales will go into definite decline and margins come under very severe pressure as it becomes increasingly costly to maintain sales at a reasonable level.

The curve for any particular product may be steeper or flatter, the time-scale may be longer or shorter. Some products seem to go on for a very long time. For this reason the pattern must be applied with care. In addition, we must be careful what we mean by a product in this context: for example, the market for glass has risen steadily over the past 50 years, but within this period the sale of lamp glasses has declined and that of milk bottles has risen steeply (to decline again in some countries in face of competition from waxed cartons or plastic and the change from doorstep delivery to bulk purchase from the supermarket).

Nonetheless the typical pattern stands as a warning that it is dangerous to rely too heavily for too long on one product, so that, as profit from one declines, profit from its successor rises to fill the gap. Ideally this will give a steadily rising profit for the company as a whole, even though some products have entered the ‘decline’ phase of the product life-cycle.

It must be emphasized that the product life-cycle diagram is not a rigid description of exactly how all products always behave. Rather it is an idealized indication of the pattern most products can be expected to follow.

There is nothing fixed about the length of the cycle or the lengths of its various stages. It has been suggested that the length of the cycle is governed by the rate of technical change, the rate of market acceptance and the ease of competitive entry. So, each year numerous new fashion styles are introduced, many of them to last only a few months. At the other extreme, a new aircraft must have many years of life if it is to be commercially worthwhile.

The main importance of the life-cycle concept is to remind us constantly of the three following facts:

1. Products have a limited life;
2. Profit levels are not constant but change throughout a product’s life in a way that is to some extent predictable;
3. Products require a different marketing programme at each stage of their life-cycle.

Implications of the Product Life-cycle

If we have to accept that no product will go on earning profits indefinitely, then we must plan so as to have a whole succession of new products coming ‘through the pipeline’. Peter Drucker has drawn attention to the need to keep all products under review to ensure that not too high a proportion are at the end of their life-cycle. He describes the following six categories:

1. Tomorrow’s breadwinners – new products or today’s breadwinners modified and improved;
2. Today’s breadwinners – the innovations of yesterday;
3. Products capable of becoming net contributors if something drastic is done;
4. Yesterday’s breadwinners – generally products with high volume, but badly fragmented into ‘specials’, small orders and the like;
5. The ‘also raps’ – generally the high hopes of yesterday that, while they did not work out well, nevertheless did not become outright failures;
6. The failures.

Product Elimination

From the product life-cycle concept and Drucker’s analysis of product categories, it follows that all products must be kept under review to assess their present and likely future contribution to profits. A common mistake of marketing management is to keep in the range products that have little or no prospect of contributing to profits. Products are kept in the range until they fade away, meanwhile consuming valuable resources, which could be more profitably utilised elsewhere. These marginal products lower the company’s profitability, and it is essential to control them.

Source: http://en.articlesgratuits.com/the-product-life-cycle-concept-id1560.php

The Definition of Productivity

People commonly understand productivity as a variety of things in a variety of fields. In a business that has closest relations to it, productivity is understood in various ways according to which aspect is studied. (According to the newest report, there are about twenty business-related definitions of productivity!)

The Concepts of Productivity

Most of the concepts have a relation to productivity between input and output to the systems studied. Productivity contains variables as well as other inter-relations within the group to which it belong(machinery systems, factory, office etc).

Also it is considered as the stimulus-response model in which inputs cause outputs. Generally, for the purposes of simplicity, we can understand it as the output divided by the input. But there is still something confusing on the point of this view.

In most fields, productivity is understood as “clearly the relationship between the resources which come to an organization system for a specified time period and the outputs which are generated with the resources generated for the same time period”.

The Variables of Productivity

In factories, for instance, productivity measures which are related to input factors (capital, labor, etc) are insufficient and at times could be misleading.

Input factors may not be studied while being isolated by themselves. Generally productivity improvement in a field is at the expense of the others. In addition, labor as a factor of input may be present in all stages. Moreover, management resources (another necessary factor of input) is not considered in these measures.

But the remaining of these concepts consider productivity as the relationship of input and output related to a system of production. This means that there are organizations working as physical systems with many variables as well as other inter-relations within.

The Objectives of Productivity

Experts Vrat and Sardina said that the people who will carry out measurements of productivity must have three objectives.

Firstly, potential improvements should be identified. Secondly, decisions should be made for reallocating resources. And lastly, it must present how the pre-set goals were determined.

Financial and Performance Productivity

There are some differences between two factors. Based the number of outputs produced, we can calculate performance productivity.

For instance: Company A produces 200 product units in a week, and the next week they are able to reach 220 units. That means the performance productivity has increased by 10%.

In comparison to performance productivity, financial productivity can be grouped by the value of output. Suppose Company X produces 200 product units in the one week as well as the next. And the selling price have raised from 1.00 dollar to 1.10 dollars per unit. Financial productivity has increased by 10%, however there is no increase in performance productivity.

This is sometimes misleading, too. In case the company sells products in 220 item at 1.10 dollars each, and the next week the price has fallen by 9.1%, the sale is still 220 dollars.

From a standpoint of finance, there is not any change even if there are some changes of performance point. (They produce extra 20 items)

So What the Definition of Productivity is?

Until now, managers are not able to determine what the measurements, improvements and definition of productivity. They also cannot define the measurement, improvement, concepts of performance as well.

Transformation of Business

The following points help to transform a business into innovative and creative culture.

Procurement and Implementation of Idea:

To prosper the culture of any business, it is necessary to nurture the ideas instead of discarding them. An antagonistic culture does not nurture ideas and thus obstructs to keep up with the rapid changing society. If an employee hits up on a great idea then the superiors tend to avoid sharing their experiences and thoughts in fear of humiliation and rejection.

Adopt a rule that permits every employee to suggest an idea. Allow them to make only positive comments, which are expressional ideas. This significantly cultivates great ideas and implements at least some form of the ideas. Business firms need to welcome and encourage new ideas and suggestions. With proper attention, ideas often provide solutions to problems, perfect incubator for the next inventive product or service or even the next marketing promotion.

Besides, make use of generated ideas. It is not possible to create future ideas just by encouraging ideas and sitting ideally without taking any action. Never discard or reject to implement business ideas without giving adequate justification. It goes in the disinterest of the business firm and there is loss in creativity and future goodwill of employees.

Empowerment:

The empowerment of employees helps to increase initiative, innovation, involvement, speed and enthusiasm of the individuals, which stands in support of a firm’s business mission.

The quality job of leadership influences to define and encourage empowerment. However, in a multi level organization, the leadership desists to empower the subordinate. The superiors believe that ideas and initiatives from subordinates can weaken their authority and eventually their position in the business firm.

In true perspective, this is a struggle. However, by ongoing clear communication and dedication from the superiors, it is possible to overcome this struggle. It is essential for the central management to understand and realize that the subordinate empowerment is for collective as well as for personal gains. If any individual fails to understand this, it is sensible to remove that individual to avoid conflict.

Communication:

Communication is extremely essential by the point of creative place of work in a mature culture. It is the key element to implement a cultural renaissance. Leaders have to communicate in such a way that it excites and energizes their crew and at the same time helps their crew to overcome the hesitancy in adopting those proposals.

Believe in Each Member of Organization:

It is the natural tendency of people to rise on the occasion, if they believe they are reliable. Generally, many people are looking for personnel, who believe in them and hold responsibility for them.

Moreover, when they are sure of these persons, they tend to produce good results. Therefore, during business transformation, it is important to have someone in whom each member of the organization believes and who is ready to vouch for them to succeed.

Harvest Emotional Energy: Values give true credit to people’s lives. The performance of any business firm is directly proportional to its capability to tap its human potential. Most people take work as the best opportunity to express their innermost levels of creativity in search of fulfillment.

So, set clear human values and allow the corporate culture to harvest the emotional drives and creative potential of the crew members.

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